Fixing DRIVER IRQL NOT LESS OR EQUAL In Windows 11 or 10

The infamous “DRIVER IRQL NOT LESS OR EQUAL” error, a.k.a. the Stop Error Code: 0x000000D1, is like the rockstar of critical system errors on Windows. You know it as the Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) – the drama queen of computer malfunctions. This error pulls the curtains when a driver, the unsung hero bridging your operating system and hardware, decides it’s time for a wild memory adventure at an altitude it shouldn’t be.understanding the topic

In the grand arena of computing, Interrupt Request Level (IRQL) takes the spotlight. It’s the VIP section for hardware device requests, each level being a VIP lounge with a different priority. Go higher, get fancier. But, oh boy, when a driver thinks it’s invited to the penthouse but crashes the whole party by overshooting the IRQL limit – that’s when the “DRIVER IRQL NOT LESS OR EQUAL” error crashes onto the stage in its vibrant blue attire.

Reasons for this spectacle range from driver hiccups (yeah, those software divas) to hardware tantrums or even the computer’s memory having a moody day. To tame this beast, you might need to play the tech therapist – update or boot out unruly drivers, check if the hardware is throwing a tantrum, or simply soothe the computer’s memory woes. It’s like being the IT superhero, cape optional.

In case you happen to stumble upon this pesky error right at the beginning of your Windows adventure, fear not! There’s a lifesaving article titled “Blue Screen (BSOD) Error in Middle of Computer Startup – Every Possible Solution”. This masterpiece is crafted to be your guiding light through the dark maze of the Blue Screen of Death (BSOD) that decides to gatecrash your computer’s startup party.

So, Let’s See How to Fix DRIVER IRQL NOT LESS OR EQUAL In Windows 11 or 10

In most cases, around 90% of the time you encounter this error, it’s giving you grief because of driver-related issues. The good news is that, in many scenarios, you can play detective and narrow down the exact driver causing the ruckus. Just take a look at the file name linked to the driver—it usually pops up right next to the error message and resembles formats such as ‘xxx.sys or ‘xyz.sys.

The name of the driver file causing the issue
The name of the driver file causing the issue.
The name of the driver file causing the issue
The name of the driver file causing the issue.

If the error screen fails to display any specific driver file name alongside this BSOD error, it means the usual troubleshooting steps mentioned in this article might not cut it this time. In these situations, it’s a good idea to skip the current tutorial and turn to another resource for a more in-depth strategy to tackle this problem.

Otherwise, if you have the Driver’s name, then just continue;

Once you’ve pinpointed the driver’s file name linked to the error, the next move is to dig deeper and gather more details about that specific driver. This entails delving into the ‘Online Drivers Directory’ to uncover the full name or description about that troublesome driver.

Drivers Directory Link:

Follow this step-by-step guide to utilize the website for driver information:

  1. Access the Drivers Directory: Click on the provided link, which will lead you to a comprehensive Drivers Directory.
  2. Search for the .sys Driver File: Use the website’s search function to input the .sys driver file name you identified earlier. For example, if your problematic driver’s file name is “rtwlane.sys”, type it into the search drivers file name
  3. Retrieve Driver Information: After searching, the website should furnish detailed information about the driver, including its full name or description. This intel sheds light on the driver’s function and purpose.

Let’s walk through an example. Suppose you’re dealing with the driver file “rtwlane.sys”. A search on might reveal that it’s a network-related driver causing the trouble, as shown in the image given below.

drivers information

Understanding the full name and description of the driver empowers you to make informed decisions on how to tackle the issue. Whether it involves updating the driver, reaching out to the manufacturer for support, or exploring alternative solutions, having comprehensive information about the driver is crucial.

Reinstall or Update Drivers

After scrutinizing the details about the driver’s file name in the driver’s directory, you’ll come across two primary classifications of drivers: hardware-related drivers and Windows-related drivers.

  • Hardware-Related Drivers: These drivers are directly tied to specific hardware components installed on your computer, such as graphics cards, network adapters, or sound cards. If you spot that the driver is associated with a particular hardware brand like Intel, Atheros, Realtek, etc., it suggests that the issue might be linked to the compatibility, functionality, or performance of that specific hardware device.
  • Windows-Related Drivers: These drivers are essential components of the Windows Operating System and play a crucial role in facilitating communication between the OS and various hardware components. If your investigation reveals that the driver is related to Microsoft, it falls under the category of Windows-related drivers, indicating its significance for the overall functioning of the Windows environment.

Here is a compilation of the most frequently encountered driver files that result in this blue screen error.

Error Causing Drivers File Name Drivers Type Description
acpi.sys Windows-Based ACPI Driver for NT
afd sys Windows-Based Ancillary Function Driver for WinSock
amdkmdag.sys Hardware-Based AMD Video Drivers
amdkmpfd.sys Hardware-Based AMD Video Drivers
amdppm.sys Hardware-Based AMD Video Drivers
athw8x.sys Hardware-Based Qualcomm Atheros Extensible Wireless LAN device driver
bddci.sys Windows-Based Bitdefender BDDCI
bridge.sys Windows-Based MAC Bridge Driver
covpnv64.sys Hardware-Based SSL VPN Adapter Driver
dxgmms2.sys Windows-Based DirectX Graphics MMS files
iastora.sys Hardware-Based Intel Rapid Storage Technology driver
igdkmd64.sys Hardware-Based Intel Graphics Kernel Mode Driver
ipeaklwf.sys Hardware-Based LiveQoS NDIS 6 Filter Driver
kbdclass.sys Hardware-Based Keyboard Class Driver
l1c63x64.sys Hardware-Based Qualcomm Atheros Ethernet Controller
ndis.sys Windows-Based NDIS 6 30 driver
ndu.sys Windows-Based Windows Network Data Usage Monitoring Driver
netio.sys Windows-Based Network I O Subsystem
netwlv64.sys Hardware-Based Intel Wireless WiFi Link Driver
nvlddmkm.sys Hardware-Based NVIDIA Windows Kernel Mode Driver Version 302 86
qcamain10x64.sys Hardware-Based Qualcomm Atheros Extensible Wireless LAN
rtf64x64.sys Hardware-Based Realtek packet filter driver
storport.sys Windows-Based Microsoft Storage Port Driver
tcpip.sys Windows-Based TCP IP Driver
usbport.sys Windows-Based USB 1 1 2 0 Port Driver
usbxhci.sys Windows-Based USB XHCI Driver
wdf01000.sys Windows-Based Kernel Mode Driver Framework Runtime


Now, depending on the classification of the driver, different steps need to be taken to fix the issue.

Method #1: Fixing Windows-Based Drivers

Now, if you’re stuck in the maze of this error, and suspect it’s playing hide-and-seek with your Windows-related drivers, fear not. The key to a quick fix? Wrangling those recent Windows updates.

Let’s talk about the not-so-fun side of computer systems: automatic updates. They’re meant to make our lives easier, but sometimes they throw a wrench in the works. Imagine this: your computer updates itself without giving you a heads-up, and suddenly, things start acting wonky.

So, here’s the deal: if you’re facing issues after an automatic update, it might be due to a clash with existing drivers. No one likes surprises, especially when it comes to tech glitches. To troubleshoot, dive into your update history and find the culprit. Once you’ve got a suspect, kick it out – uninstall the update causing the ruckus.

Uninstall Recently Installed Windows Update

On the other hand, if your computer has been running without updates for quite some time, it’s time to be a bit proactive. Don’t let your system be stuck in the past – go ahead and check for any available updates. It’s a simple but crucial step.

Keeping your Windows operating system up to date is like giving your computer a good dose of vitamins. It ensures your system stays secure, stable, and can smoothly handle the latest software developments. Think of it as a tech self-care routine to keep everything running smoothly.

Now, run a diagnostic test. Is the problem gone? If yes, victory dance! If not, at least you’re one step closer to identifying the pesky root cause.

In addition to counting on Windows updates to keep your system in check, you’ve got some nifty tools at your disposal right in the Command Prompt (CMD) to deal with issues lurking in Windows’ internal files. Let me introduce you to two command-line superheroes: “sfc /scannow” and “DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth”.

First up, the “sfc /scannow” command unleashes the System File Checker (SFC) tool. It’s like your computer’s personal detective, scanning protected system files for any corruption or absence. If it finds something fishy, it takes matters into its own hands, repairing and restoring files to their healthy state. It’s like a doctor’s check-up for your crucial Windows files.sfc scannow command in CMD

Now, let’s talk about the second command, “DISM /Online /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth”. This one’s a bit of a wizard in the Deployment Image Service and Management Tool (DISM). It’s your go-to for tackling more complex issues related to Windows image corruption. By scanning and restoring the Windows image, it dives deep to fix underlying system files, making sure everything stays intact and functional.DISM command in CMD

When you punch in these commands in the Command Prompt, you’re taking an active role in keeping your Windows operating system shipshape. It’s like being your computer’s personal trainer, making sure it stays strong, stable, and efficient. These manual tricks come in handy when dealing with persistent issues that just won’t budge, offering you a versatile toolkit to keep your Windows system in tip-top condition.

Method #2: Fixing Hardware-Based Drivers

If you’ve traced the driver file name back to a specific hardware component in your system, the next big move is to reinstall the driver. This is a key step in ironing out compatibility hiccups, keeping your system in top shape, and fixing any problems caused by outdated or corrupted drivers.

To kick off the reinstallation process, head over to the official website of your laptop’s or desktop’s manufacturer. Navigate to their support or downloads section, and track down the right driver for the hardware component causing trouble. Make sure you snag the latest version to stay in sync with software updates and nip any known issues in the bud.

Drivers download page of official website of laptop or desktop's manufacturer

Once you’ve got the updated driver safely downloaded, it’s time to bid farewell to the old one. Open up the Device Manager on your Windows system, find the troublesome hardware device, right-click, and hit “Uninstall”. After the uninstallation, give your computer a restart to wrap up the removal.uninstall drivers

Now, let’s get that new driver in place. Follow the manufacturer’s installation instructions, usually involving running an installer or setup file and following on-screen cues. Once the installation is done, hit the restart button again to make sure the changes take root.

Why go through all this trouble? Reinstalling hardware drivers straight from the manufacturer’s turf not only sorts out potential clashes but also guarantees your system gets the latest perks and compatibility upgrades. It’s a proactive move that adds to the overall stability and functionality of your system, putting a damper on issues tied to this blue screen error.

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But sometimes, despite following the earlier steps, the “DRIVER IRQL NOT LESS OR EQUAL” error can be a trickier beast, especially if the root cause goes beyond driver-related matters. We’re talking about scenarios where the issue might be lurking in virus infections, Windows registry corruption, or other mysterious culprits.

For these more complex challenges, you need a troubleshooting strategy that goes above and beyond. That’s why I’ve put together a detailed resource in the form of an article. This comprehensive guide dives deep into advanced steps and solutions crafted to handle various causes of the BSOD, not just the usual suspects like drivers.

For an in-depth exploration of these advanced fixes, check out the article titled How to Fix BSOD (Blue Screen of Death)? – Every Advanced Solutions“. It’s a treasure trove of troubleshooting techniques, offering step-by-step instructions and insights to help you pinpoint and tackle the underlying issues triggering the BSOD problem.


  1. What to do if i face the problem of DRIVER_IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL at the time of Installing Windows 7 using a USB drive. I have HP Compaq dc7800 small form factor machine.

  2. I have facing a problem after change of hard drive and uploaded window7 32 bit. A dump occurred with name DRIVER_IRQL_NOT_LESS_OR_EQUAL caused by driver igdkmd32.sys caused address igdkmd32.sys+888c1. How i fix it. I install many time windows-7. Please suggest me.

  3. hi madhur,
    i am facing error with tcpip.sys driver .
    i found this error is due to networking related .
    how can i solve this issue ?

  4. Problem signature:
    Problem Event Name: BlueScreen
    OS Version: 6.1.7600.
    Locale ID: 1033

    Additional information about the problem:
    BCCode: a
    BCP1: 0000000000000000
    BCP2: 0000000000000002
    BCP3: 0000000000000001
    BCP4: FFFFF80004EC8B75
    OS Version: 6_1_7600
    Service Pack: 0_0
    Product: 256_1

    Files that help describe the problem:

  5. it is showing ndis.sys,which i searched on carrona. com. And it says it is a windows related driver. Please tell me how to resolve it. I am not in acquaintance with this stuff.

  6. Very useful. I am also getting same error and file in question is “netio.sys”. Trying to update my machine. Hope frequent crash does not happen again.


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